SpringBoot+RabbitMq具体使用的几种姿势

 更新时间:2019年05月15日 09:50:15   作者:小橘子2222   我要评论

这篇文章主要介绍了SpringBoot+RabbitMq具体使用的几种姿势,文中通过示例代码介绍的非常详细,对大家的学习或者工作具有一定的参考学习价值,需要的朋友们下面随着小编来一起学习学习吧

目前主流的消息中间件有activemq,rabbitmq,rocketmq,kafka,我们要根据实际的业务场景来选择一款合适的消息中间件,关注的主要指标有,消息投递的可靠性,可维护性,吞吐量以及中间件的特色等重要指标来选择,大数据领域肯定是kafka,那么传统的业务场景就是解耦,异步,削峰。那么就在剩下的3款产品中选择一款,从吞吐量,社区的活跃度,消息的可靠性出发,一般的中小型公司选择rabbitmq来说可能更为合适。那么我们就来看看如何使用它吧。

环境准备

本案例基于springboot集成rabbitmq,本案例主要侧重要实际的code,对于基础理论知识请自行百度。

jdk-version:1.8

rabbitmq-version:3.7

springboot-version:2.1.4.RELEASE

pom文件

 <dependency>
 <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
 <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-amqp</artifactId>
</dependency>

yml配置文件

spring:
 rabbitmq:
 password: guest
 username: guest
 port: 5672
 addresses: 127.0.0.1
 #开启发送失败返回
 publisher-returns: true
 #开启发送确认
 publisher-confirms: true
 listener:
  simple:
  #指定最小的消费者数量.
  concurrency: 2
  #指定最大的消费者数量.
  max-concurrency: 2
  #开启ack
  acknowledge-mode: auto
  #开启ack
  direct:
  acknowledge-mode: auto
 #支持消息的确认与返回
 template:
  mandatory: true

配置rabbitMq的姿势

姿势一

基于javaconfig

package com.lly.order.message;

import org.springframework.amqp.core.*;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;

/**
 * @ClassName RabbitMqConfig
 * @Description rabbitMq配置类
 * @Author lly
 * @Date 2019-05-13 15:05
 * @Version 1.0
 **/
@Configuration
public class RabbitMqConfig {

 public final static String DIRECT_QUEUE = "directQueue";
 public final static String TOPIC_QUEUE_ONE = "topic_queue_one";
 public final static String TOPIC_QUEUE_TWO = "topic_queue_two";
 public final static String FANOUT_QUEUE_ONE = "fanout_queue_one";
 public final static String FANOUT_QUEUE_TWO = "fanout_queue_two";

 public final static String TOPIC_EXCHANGE = "topic_exchange";
 public final static String FANOUT_EXCHANGE = "fanout_exchange";

 public final static String TOPIC_ROUTINGKEY_ONE = "common_key";
 public final static String TOPIC_ROUTINGKEY_TWO = "*.key";

// direct模式队列
 @Bean
 public Queue directQueue() {
  return new Queue(DIRECT_QUEUE, true);
 }
// topic 订阅者模式队列
 @Bean
 public Queue topicQueueOne() {
  return new Queue(TOPIC_QUEUE_ONE, true);
 }
 @Bean
 public Queue topicQueueTwo() {
  return new Queue(TOPIC_QUEUE_TWO, true);
 }
// fanout 广播者模式队列
 @Bean
 public Queue fanoutQueueOne() {
  return new Queue(FANOUT_QUEUE_ONE, true);
 }
 @Bean
 public Queue fanoutQueueTwo() {
  return new Queue(FANOUT_QUEUE_TWO, true);
 }
// topic 交换器
 @Bean
 public TopicExchange topExchange() {
  return new TopicExchange(TOPIC_EXCHANGE);
 }
// fanout 交换器
 @Bean
 public FanoutExchange fanoutExchange() {
  return new FanoutExchange(FANOUT_EXCHANGE);
 }

// 订阅者模式绑定
 @Bean
 public Binding topExchangeBingingOne() {
  return BindingBuilder.bind(topicQueueOne()).to(topExchange()).with(TOPIC_ROUTINGKEY_ONE);
 }

 @Bean
 public Binding topicExchangeBingingTwo() {
  return BindingBuilder.bind(topicQueueTwo()).to(topExchange()).with(TOPIC_ROUTINGKEY_TWO);
 }
// 广播模式绑定
 @Bean
 public Binding fanoutExchangeBingingOne() {
  return BindingBuilder.bind(fanoutQueueOne()).to(fanoutExchange());
 }
 @Bean
 public Binding fanoutExchangeBingingTwo() {
  return BindingBuilder.bind(fanoutQueueTwo()).to(fanoutExchange());
 }
}

姿势二

基于注解

package com.lly.order.message;

import com.rabbitmq.client.Channel;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.amqp.core.AmqpTemplate;
import org.springframework.amqp.core.ExchangeTypes;
import org.springframework.amqp.core.Message;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.Exchange;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.Queue;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.QueueBinding;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitListener;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.connection.CorrelationData;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.core.RabbitTemplate;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.time.LocalTime;
import java.util.UUID;


/**
 * @ClassName MQTest
 * @Description 消息队列测试
 * @Author lly
 * @Date 2019-05-13 10:50
 * @Version 1.0
 **/
@Component
@Slf4j
public class MQTest implements RabbitTemplate.ConfirmCallback, RabbitTemplate.ReturnCallback {

 private final static String QUEUE = "test_queue";

 @Autowired
 private AmqpTemplate amqpTemplate;

 @Autowired
 private RabbitTemplate rabbitTemplate;

 public MQTest(RabbitTemplate rabbitTemplate) {
  rabbitTemplate.setConfirmCallback(this);
  rabbitTemplate.setReturnCallback(this);
 }

 public void sendMq() {
  rabbitTemplate.convertAndSend("test_queue", "test_queue" + LocalTime.now());
  log.info("发送消息:{}", "test_queue" + LocalTime.now());
 }


 public void sendMqRabbit() {
  //回调id
  CorrelationData cId = new CorrelationData(UUID.randomUUID().toString());
//  rabbitTemplate.convertAndSend(RabbitMqConfig.FANOUT_EXCHANGE, "", "广播者模式测试",cId);
  Object object = rabbitTemplate.convertSendAndReceive(RabbitMqConfig.FANOUT_EXCHANGE, "", "广播者模式测试", cId);
  log.info("发送消息:{},object:{}", "广播者模式测试" + LocalTime.now(), object);
 }

 //发送订阅者模式
 public void sendMqExchange() {
  CorrelationData cId = new CorrelationData(UUID.randomUUID().toString());
  CorrelationData cId01 = new CorrelationData(UUID.randomUUID().toString());
  log.info("订阅者模式->发送消息:routing_key_one");
  rabbitTemplate.convertSendAndReceive("topic_exchange", "routing_key_one", "routing_key_one" + LocalTime.now(), cId);
  log.info("订阅者模式->发送消息routing_key_two");
  rabbitTemplate.convertSendAndReceive("topic_exchange", "routing_key_two", "routing_key_two" + LocalTime.now(), cId01);
 }
 //如果不存在,自动创建队列
 @RabbitListener(queuesToDeclare = @Queue("test_queue"))
 public void receiverMq(String msg) {
  log.info("接收到队列消息:{}", msg);
 }
  //如果不存在,自动创建队列和交换器并且绑定
 @RabbitListener(bindings = {
   @QueueBinding(value = @Queue(value = "topic_queue01", durable = "true"),
     exchange = @Exchange(value = "topic_exchange", type = ExchangeTypes.TOPIC),
     key = "routing_key_one")})
 public void receiverMqExchage(String msg, Channel channel, Message message) throws IOException {

  long deliveryTag = message.getMessageProperties().getDeliveryTag();

  try {
   log.info("接收到topic_routing_key_one消息:{}", msg);
   //发生异常
   log.error("发生异常");
   int i = 1 / 0;
   //告诉服务器收到这条消息 已经被我消费了 可以在队列删掉 这样以后就不会再发了 否则消息服务器以为这条消息没处理掉 后续还会在发
   channel.basicAck(deliveryTag, false);
  } catch (Exception e) {
   log.error("接收消息失败,重新放回队列");
   //requeu,为true,代表重新放入队列多次失败重新放回会导致队列堵塞或死循环问题,
   // 解决方案,剔除此消息,然后记录到db中去补偿
   //channel.basicNack(deliveryTag, false, true);
   //拒绝消息
   //channel.basicReject(deliveryTag, true);
  }
 }

 @RabbitListener(bindings = {
   @QueueBinding(value = @Queue(value = "topic_queue02", durable = "true"),
     exchange = @Exchange(value = "topic_exchange", type = ExchangeTypes.TOPIC),
     key = "routing_key_two")})
 public void receiverMqExchageTwo(String msg) {
  log.info("接收到topic_routing_key_two消息:{}", msg);
 }


 @RabbitListener(queues = RabbitMqConfig.FANOUT_QUEUE_ONE)
 public void receiverMqFanout(String msg, Channel channel, Message message) throws IOException {
  long deliveryTag = message.getMessageProperties().getDeliveryTag();
  try {
   log.info("接收到队列fanout_queue_one消息:{}", msg);
   channel.basicAck(deliveryTag, false);
  } catch (Exception e) {
   e.printStackTrace();
   //多次失败重新放回会导致队列堵塞或死循环问题 丢弃这条消息
//   channel.basicNack(message.getMessageProperties().getDeliveryTag(), false, false);
   log.error("接收消息失败");
  }
 }

 @RabbitListener(queues = RabbitMqConfig.FANOUT_QUEUE_TWO)
 public void receiverMqFanoutTwo(String msg) {
  log.info("接收到队列fanout_queue_two消息:{}", msg);
 }

 /**
  * @return
  * @Author lly
  * @Description 确认消息是否发送到exchange
  * @Date 2019-05-14 15:36
  * @Param [correlationData, ack, cause]
  **/
 @Override
 public void confirm(CorrelationData correlationData, boolean ack, String cause) {
  log.info("消息唯一标识id:{}", correlationData);
  log.info("消息确认结果!");
  log.error("消息失败原因,cause:{}", cause);
 }
 /**
  * @return
  * @Author lly
  * @Description 消息消费发生异常时返回
  * @Date 2019-05-14 16:22
  * @Param [message, replyCode, replyText, exchange, routingKey]
  **/
 @Override
 public void returnedMessage(Message message, int replyCode, String replyText, String exchange, String routingKey) {
  log.info("消息发送失败id:{}", message.getMessageProperties().getCorrelationId());
  log.info("消息主体 message : ", message);
  log.info("消息主体 message : ", replyCode);
  log.info("描述:" + replyText);
  log.info("消息使用的交换器 exchange : ", exchange);
  log.info("消息使用的路由键 routing : ", routingKey);
 }
}

rabbitMq消息确认的三种方式

# 发送消息后直接确认消息
acknowledge-mode:none
# 根据消息消费的情况,智能判定消息的确认情况
acknowledge-mode:auto
# 手动确认消息的情况
acknowledge-mode:manual

我们以topic模式来试验下消息的ack

自动确认消息模式

手动确认消息模式

然后我们再次消费消息,发现消息是没有被确认的,所以可以被再次消费

发现同样的消息还是存在的没有被队列删除,必须手动去ack,我们修改队列1的手动ack看看效果

channel.basicAck(deliveryTag, false);

重启项目再次消费消息

再次查看队列里的消息,发现队列01里的消息被删除了,队列02的还是存在。

消费消息发生异常的情况,修改代码 模拟发生异常的情况下发生了什么, 异常发生了,消息被重放进了队列

但是会导致消息不停的循环消费,然后失败,致死循环调用大量服务器资源

所以我们正确的处理方式是,发生异常,将消息记录到db,再通过补偿机制来补偿消息,或者记录消息的重复次数,进行重试,超过几次后再放到db中。

总结

通过实际的code我们了解的rabbitmq在项目的具体的整合情况,消息ack的几种情况,方便在实际的场景中选择合适的方案来使用。如有不足,还望不吝赐教。希望对大家的学习有所帮助,也希望大家多多支持脚本之家。

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